Phd thesis on wind turbine

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CFD modeling of wind turbine wakes

Identifying sustainable and alternative energy sources has become a national priority in recent years, but the drive to make the paradigm shift from fossil fuels has not been easy or inexpensive. To date, there have been a number of initiatives intended to provide such alternative fuel sources, with some appearing to offer more advantages than others, but some of which, such as nuclear energy, carry some form of a trade-off in terms of introducing one potential environmental catastrophe for another.

Fortunately, there are some methods, such as wind power, that are already available which have boasted a proven track record of performance with a minimal impact on the environment. Although wind power continues to represent a miniscule percentage of the total energy supply for the United States today, wind farms are increasingly cropping up across the country, and continuing investments in this emerging technology suggest that prices will continue to decrease while innovations will help wind farm efficiencies increase in the future, thereby making this alternative energy high competitive with existing energy sources.

The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the role currently being played by wind power in the United States, and to identify current and future trends concerning its use.

A summary of the research and recommendations in this regard are provided in the conclusion. According to Keley"Americans are a power-hungry society, demanding conservation of natural resources and protection of the environment while simultaneously using an incredible supply of electricity" While the experts continue to debate the best course of action to help the nation make the transition from a fossil-fuel-based economy to one that relies on a combination of sustainable alternative energy sources, an increasing number of experts have pointed to wind power as a potential resource that remains largely untapped today in terms of its overall contribution to the nation's energy needs.

This paper provides an overview of the pros and cons related to wind power generation, including its costs compared to other traditional and alternative energy sources, its current contribution to the nation's energy needs, the types of wind turbine in use and envisioned, as well as current and future trends in wind power applications.

A summary of the research and relevant recommendations are presented in the conclusion. Review and Discussion In their recent study, "Assessing U. Energy Policy," Brown, Sovacool and Hirsh report that in spite of increased efforts for the past 30 years to identify alternative sources of energy, the United States remains highly dependent on foreign sources. According to these authors, "Reductions in the cost of power produced from renewables in this time have been impressive, making them look increasingly attractive for future use" Brown et al.

These improvements in technology and the associated efficiencies of scale will therefore likely make this alternative energy source an even greater contributor to the nation's overall energy needs, a trend that is confirmed by recent research.

For example, the results of a study by Hansen found that, "Electricity generated from wind is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States.

phd thesis on wind turbine

Sinceinstalled wind capacity in the U. A number of factors have contributed to this impressive growth rate, including increasing environmental concern over traditional energy sources as well as the economies of scale and operating efficiencies being introduced in wind power technology Hansen. In this regard, Hansen emphasizes that, "Increasing awareness and concern regarding the environmental consequences of power production, most notably global climate changehave increased interest in renewable forms of power generation, primarily in wind" Just as some other alternative energy sources such as hydroelectric power and nuclear energy have their environment drawbacks, critics of wind firms, though, maintain that land-based wind power can also cause unintended and unexpected ecological damage, particularly for certain species of wildlife, by transforming the landscape Brown et al.

Figure 1. Wind Farm in Boulder County, Wyoming. Figure 2. Source: Gray at 2. Other objections have come from residents situated near proposed wind farm sites based on their potential noise pollution and disruption of the aesthetic. In this regard, Keley reports that, "Recently there has been much debate over the construction of a proposed wind farm known as Cape Wind, near Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

A prominent resident of Martha's Vineyard for thirty years encapsulated the community's objection to the proposal: 'I'm not against wind turbines. I'm against of them over feet tall right smack in the middle of one of the most beautiful places in America'" quoted in Keley at Bouras, Ioannis CFD modeling of wind turbine wakes.

PhD thesis, University of Sheffield. Accurate predictions of the atmospheric properties are of paramount importance for many engineering applications, such as wind turbine wakes. The simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer ABL is a big challenge due to the fact that, with an exception of the ground boundary, it does not have any physical borders e.

The simulation of the flow near the ground also is challenging because, usually, ground consists of anomalies such as small vegetation, various sized stones etc. The streamwise distance of the computational domain can be of the order of magnitude of many kilometers, especially in wind farm simulations, and consequently huge distortions of the inlet profiles may occur.

A fully developed inlet profile must be imposed at the inlet and be maintained throughout the domain, at least for a uniform roughness terrain. RANS deals with average quantities and the problem with the maintenance of the inlet quantities is a boundary condition and turbulence modeling problem.

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LES on the other hand, does not include any extra equations for the resolved part of the flowconsequently the maintenance of the inlet properties appears to be only a boundary condition problem. However, it is not only a boundary condition problem but the way that the turbulence is generated at the inlet plays a vital role, as well as the grid resolution, which makes the situation even more complicated. This thesis is specialized in the simulations of the surface layer of the neutral ABL in both RANS and LES and interactions of the properties of the neutral atmosphere with wind turbine wakes are investigated.

Modifications to various RANS models are considered to make the models be mathematically consistent with the properties of neutral atmosphere in order to successfully simulate the neutral ABL by eliminating any streamwise gradients within the empty domain. Then, the adequacy of the modified models is investigated for the simulation of 2 different small wind turbine wakes. Finally, the problem of the inflow generation with synthetic methods for the simulation of the surface layer of the ABL is presented for LES.

Periodic boundary conditions are employed to overcome this difficulty along with an extension of a shear stress boundary condition at the upper boundary of the domain in order to maintain the turbulence within the domain.

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The results of the proposed models show good agreement when compared with available measurements and also improvements when compared with other models found in the literature, especially in the far wake region of the wind turbines as they have the correct recovery of the wake for 2 different wind turbines for various different inlet conditions.

Filename: final thesis corrections2. You do not need to contact us to get a copy of this thesis. Please use the 'Download' link s above to get a copy. You can contact us about this thesis. If you need to make a general enquiry, please see the Contact us page. CFD modeling of wind turbine wakes. Abstract Accurate predictions of the atmospheric properties are of paramount importance for many engineering applications, such as wind turbine wakes.

Download final thesis corrections2. X White Rose eTheses Online - website feedback. Mr Ioannis Bouras.Originality and Accuracy. Experience and Expertise. Our thesis aid and dissertation writing service enable customers to learn how to research and write their own term papers, dissertations, thesis papers, and research proposals, and they are responsible for citing us as a reference source.

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Danny Foti defended his PhD thesis on model predictions of wind turbines and plants

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phd thesis on wind turbine

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Some features of this site may not work without it. Aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine rotor in axial motion Eliassen, Lene. Doctoral thesis. Utgivelsesdato Sammendrag This study investigates the unsteady aerodynamics of attached flow on a two-dimensional airfoil. The unsteady aerodynamics introduces aerodynamic damping of the offshore wind turbine structure and is thus important for the turbine structural integrity. This includes an impact on the fatigue damage of the structure and, consequently, an effect on the total cost of energy.

Unsteady aerodynamics can be studied using a variety of methods. In this thesis, a panel vortex method was developed to estimate the aerodynamic forces. Consequently, dynamic stall, which is an important unsteady aerodynamic effect, can not be modeled, and we are limited to attached flow conditions. Despite this limitation, the vortex method is in some situation the preferred option when investigating unsteady aerodynamics.

The vortex method has the advantage of considering the wake history in the estimation of the aerodynamic forces. Using the panel vortex method developed in this study, one is not dependent on look-up tables since the aerodynamic loads are calculated by direct modelling of flow conditions on an airfoil of a given geometry.

However, the computational time of the vortex method is long and is therefore often not used. There is a possibility to reduce the computational time of the vortex method. By using a graphic processing unit, it is demonstrated how the computational time can be reduced for a two-dimensional panel vortex code. A significant reduction in computational time can be achieved for the simulation, depending on the number of vortex elements in the analysis.

For a low amount of vortex elements, the computation is faster on a central processing unit, CPU. The panel vortex method is used to investigate the motion induced aerodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine. Studying the flow conditions on an airfoil oscillating in plunge motion at frequencies similar to the eigenfrequencies for a floating spar type wind turbine, the aerodynamic damping for eigenmodes represented is estimated.

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Including the neighbouring airfoils and their wakes in the analysis has a relatively large effect on the estimated aerodynamic damping. One example where this can occur is if the eigenfrequency of the tower is equal to the blade passing frequency. This effect has previously been studied by other researchers, but mostly for helicopter rotors.

The change in the wind-structure interaction effects is studied with regards to the fatigue damage of the tower using a single degree of freedom model.

Comparing the fatigue damage results using different computational methods to estimate the aerodynamic forces can be useful when evaluating the effect of the aerodynamic model chosen on the cost.

This study only focuses on one unsteady plunging motion, and is therefore limited. It is found that the unsteady aerodynamic models that are most commonly used may overestimate the damping, and thus estimate a too low fatigue damage.

This will have a negative impact on the cost if the wind turbine fails. Beskrivelse PhD thesis in Offshore technology. Utgiver University of Stavanger, Norway. Serie PhD thesis UiS; Hele arkivet. Denne samlingen.

Logg inn.With increasing energy demands renewable energy sources are continuing to receive attention and investment to become a larger source for electricity production. Computational models for wind plants can be used to predict wind plant performance and optimize the turbine placement and controls. However, uncertainties associated with such models, due to, among others, the computationally expedient simplifications need to be carefully assessed, quantified and reduced.

A numerical investigation of model wind turbines employing large-eddy simulation and the curvilinear immersed boundary method to resolve the geometrical details of the turbine is undertaken revealing that the unstable hub vortex interacts with the turbine tip shear layer. Using a spatio-temporal filtering technique, wake meandering, a large scale displacement of the wake, is reconstructed into three-dimensional helical meander profiles.

Statistics of the amplitudes and wavelengths corresponding to the intensity and streamwise elongation of the periodic wake meandering indicate complex coherent structures. Similar simulations are performed using the computationally expedient wind turbine actuator surface models with and without a nacelle model to parameterize the turbine. All simulations are validated against substantial experimental measurements. The simulations with the nacelle model are able to accurately capture the geometry dependent near wake and the dynamics in the far wake.

The simulations without the nacelle model predict a stable, columnar hub vortex which does not interact with the turbine tip shear layer. Moreover, the amplitude of the meandering profiles is shown to be larger in the immersed boundary method simulations and simulations with a nacelle model compared to the simulation without the nacelle model proving that the nacelle and unstable hub vortex augment the meandering intensity in wind turbines.

Due to the exceptional performance of the computationally efficient actuator surface with nacelle model, several turbine designs are simulated with diameters ranging from the laboratory scale 0.

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Despite significant geometrical differences, a characteristic velocity based on the turbine thrust collapses the profile of both the wake turbulence kinetic energy and the amplitude of wake meandering based on the meandering profile for all turbine sizes. This result suggests that the turbulence levels and wake meandering intensity are explicitly linked. The wavelengths of wake meandering are properly scaled by the diameter of the turbine.

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In agreement with numerous measurements, the wake meandering and hub vortex Strouhal number based on the incoming hub height velocity and diameter is found to be approximately 0.

Dynamic mode decomposition of the velocity field indicates that the modes related to these frequencies contain a majority of the energy in the meandering wake and confirms that an unstable hub vortex is a necessary requirement for simulating wind turbine wakes.

Skip to main content. College of Science and Engineering. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Danny Foti defended his PhD thesis on model predictions of wind turbines and plants. Quantification and reduction of uncertainty of model predictions of wind turbines and plants via high-fidelity simulations With increasing energy demands renewable energy sources are continuing to receive attention and investment to become a larger source for electricity production.

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